The Leipzig School and the Deliberate Dumbing Down of Americans
The Frankfurt School played an important role in the origin of the counterculture, the sex lib movement and perhaps in part in the New Age Occult movement. Theodore W. Adorno and Herbert Marcuse of the Frankfurt School operated from major American universities and their ideas influenced the more educated Baby Boomers who created the counterculture. In turn, the counterculture weakened Christianity in the U.S., lowered our moral standards and created widespread divorce.
I came across a web site somewhere saying that Georg Lukacs (1885-1971), the Hungarian Jewish Marxist, when he was Deputy Commissar for the Bolshevik Regime in Hungary in 1918 introduced a sex education program in the schools which tried to promote sex outside of marriage. It didn’t go over too well. Like Antonio Gramsci, Lukacs said Christianity must first be destroyed before Marxism can take over the West.Theorode W. Adorno, of the Frankfurt School, in his 1950 book The Authoritarian Personality, posing as a personality and social psychologist, claimed that fascism is caused by Christianity and the strong family and wanted to get rid of both. The naive American personality and social shrinks of the fifties and sixties bought this propaganda as hypotheses to be tested in studies using questionnaires. Adorno’s propaganda filtered down out of the major universities to the Baby Boomers who populated the hippie movement and the entire counterculture. In the sixties and seventies, there were some people older than Baby Boomers in the counterculture, but the Baby Boomers constituted the bulk of the movements.
Self psychology under Carl Rogers and A.H. Maslow, as well as the art bohemian movement, were allied movements of the counterculture. Herbert Marcuse of the Frankfurt School was one of the main fathers of the New Left and wrote about it and gave talks to students on the New left. His book, Eros and Civilization, was important in promoting the sex lib strand of the counterculture. Wilhelm Reich, the psychoanalyst of the Frankfurt School also had an influence upon the sexual liberation movement. In the major universities, like Wisconsin, the Gay Rights and lesbianism movements followed closely on the heels of the heterosexual sex lib movement, allied with the counterculture. Reich was highly anti-Christian.
Since Max Horkheimer as director of the Frankfurt School for Social Research decided to use the Institute to promote the ideas of George Lukacs, I wonder if Herbert Marcuse was just carrying on the bent of Bolshevik Commissar Lukacs to weaken the family and Christian morality by advocating sex outside of marriage? And Freud is the guy who in subtle ways helped start the anti- Christian and sex lib movements in the West.
There was another school of thought, like the Frankfurt School centered in the major American universities, which has had a tremendous anti-Christian influence upon this country and is largely responsible for the deliberate dumbing down of Americans. Charlotte Iserbyt wrote a book on “Progressive Education” called “The deliberate Dumbing Down of America.” This influence is sometimes called the Leipzig School. The Leipzig School began with Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920), known as the father of experimental psychology. At the University of Leipzig, Wundt established one of the first labs to experimentally study some forms of human behavior, largely sensory psychology. William James had created a lab for experimental psychology at about this same time in the U.S. Wundt trained the first generation of American experimental psychologists. His influence was so great in this country that almost all experimental psychologists trained in the major universities can trace their lineage back to Wundt. One of Wundt’s Ph.D. students was Edward Bradford Titchener (1867- 1927), who taught experimental psychology at Cornell for years. Karl M. Dallenbach received his Ph.D. under Titchener, and in his later years Dallenbach taught introductory psychology at the University of Texas where I was his student at one time.
Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924) received his Ph.D. under William James (1842-1910) but also studied under Wilhelm Wundt at Leipzig. Hall became interested in child psychology and in education. At Johns Hopkins University John Dewey (1859-1952) received his Ph.D. under Hall. Dewey became the founder of “Progressive Education” in America. Dewey was influenced by the reductionist approach of Wundt as well as later by the educational system in the Soviet Union. I wonder if Dewey got some ideas from the early Bolsevick sex education programs, especially that of Commissar Georg Lukacs (1885-1971) in Hungary in 1918. Lukacs had an influence upon the Frankfurt School.
The Leipzig School then is largely made up of Wilhelm Wundt, Granville Stanley Hall and John Dewey. Some of their younger followers could also be included in the Leipzig School. Just as Charles Darwin promoted an anti-Christian mindset, so Wilhelm Wundt created a godless world view based upon his experimental psychology. Wundt’s approach to human behavior reduced man to his animal nature. Later behaviorism under John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, following Wundt to some extent, reduced man to drives and conditioning. Skinner was clearly opposed to Christianity. Dewey continued the anti-Christian attitude of Wundt and apparently Wundt’s reduction of humans to their animal nature. At first Dewey worked from the Rockefeller founded Education Department of the University of Chicago. In 1904 Dewey moved to Columbia Teacher’s College of Columbia University. At Columbia his influence on American education became tremendous. We can see Dewey’s possible influence on Carl Rogers who got his graduate education at Columbia. Rogers emphasized feelings over cognitive abilities, as does Dewey’s “Progressive Education,” Since Rogers taught that desires and feelings are the most important part of the human self, then there is some indirect influence of Dewey upon the counterculture.
Carl Rogers was one of the psychologists who brought us what Dean Gotcher calls the “Diaprax,” or the deceptive use of dialogue as a small group attitude change procedure, which has wider applications. Rogers used the Diaprax in encounter groups during the late sixties and seventies.
In addition to being Anti-Christian, Dewey was a socialist. He rejected God and all absolute truth and absolute morality. To Dewey, man was just a biological organism without a soul. He opposed teaching basic reading, writing and math which can help students develop their cognitive and thinking abilities. Dewey’s influence on American education over the years helped to produce people who feel and have opinions rather than think and try to understand reality. To Dewey personal experience leads to learning. Dewey’s “Progressive Education” has developed in such a way that it favors slower students and hinders students with higher intelligence. Some students who may have higher intelligence but are frustrated by being hindered by their teachers may be diagnosed by the School Shrinks as having Attention Deficit Disorder and ordered to take Ritalin and in some cases also anti-depressants. Ritalin can become addictive. It has caused heart disease in children and even death (http://www.ritalindeath.com). “Attention Deficit Disorder” is a supposed new psychological condition School Psychologists and Psychiatrists have dreamed up. It involves inattention and hyperactivity. On http://www.jesus-is-lord.com/ritalin.htm they say that “Ritalin and amphetamine frequently cause the very same problems they are supposed to treat–inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. A large percentage of children become robotic, lethargic, depressed, or withdrawn on stimulants…”
Making school children who have higher intelligence “robotic, depressed or withdrawn” would appear also to reduce their cognitive functioning, making them less intelligent. In addition, the site above reports that Ritalin withdrawal can cause “… emotional suffering, including depression, exhaustion, and suicide. This can make children seem psychiatrically disturbed and lead mistakenly to increased doses of medication. Ritalin is addictive and can become a gateway drug to other addictions. It is a common drug of abuse among children and adults.”
“Progressive Education” is in large part responsible for the drugging of millions of school children by Ritalin. In Dewey’s system absolute morality is taboo and was replaced by moral relativism, values clarification and situation ethics. The system may have helped create some morally reprobate teachers and students, if not some psychopaths. Under the influence of Dewey and the Leipzig School of Wundt,and Hall, as well as Skinner, the American public school system came to focus on indoctrination and socialization. The teaching of literacy and most other cognitive skills suffered under this school. Marc Tucker (born 1940) has become one contemporary promoter of the Leipzig School’s “Progressive Education” plans. In 1992 Tucker outlined a plan for the federal government to fully take over all public schools in the states. Tucker wants to have behavorial psychologists decide what is taught in the public schools. He advocates outcome-based education to replace training in the basics. Training in the basics sometimes produces independent thinkers. A totalitarian society run in part on Fred Skinner’s behaviorist model of reward and punishment cannot tolerate free thinkers. For the totalitarians there are too many “free thinkers” now on the Internet. In addition, totalitarians do not want Christians running around who teach the truths of the Bible.
Tucker wants public education to educate young people to meet whatever goals the state wants to meet. Tucker’s totalitarian agenda is the foundation for the Goals 2000 and the School-To-Work Acts passed by Congress.